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Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of simultaneous and staged resection for colon cancer with synchronous liver metastases. Methods: The clinical data of 36 patients with synchronous liver metastases from colon cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Of the patients, 16 cases underwent radical resection of colon cancer and simultaneous resection of liver metastases (simultaneous resection group), and the other 20 cases underwent radical resection of colon cancer and two-stage resection of liver metastases (staged resection group). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates between the two groups were compared. Results: The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rate in simultaneous resection group was 87.5%, 37.5% and 18.8%, and in staged resection group was 65%, 10.0% and 0.0%, respectively. By comparison, the 1-year survival rates had no statistical difference between the two groups (P>0.05), but both 3- and 5-year survival rates in simultaneous resection group were significantly higher than those in staged resection group (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Simultaneous surgery can prolong the survival time of patients with synchronous liver metastases from colon cancer.